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浅谈区块链几种常见的扩容方式

区块链技术中常见的扩容方案?#21152;?#21738;些?让我们来了解一下链上扩容和链下扩容那些行之?#34892;?#30340;方法吧!

区块链里有一个不可能三角:去?#34892;?#21270;、安全性、可拓展性无法同时满足。目前区块链基础设施存在可拓展性问题,无法满足大规模应用的需求。

同时资源瓶颈决定了公链的性能上线,与链上共识机制、数据结构等无关。这也导致区块链的基础设置无法无法满足大规模的应用的需求,限制了区块链行业的发展。

人们开始研究如?#38382;?#29616;区块链扩容,拓展公链的性能。常见的扩容方案有如下几种:

链上扩容

1.增加区块链容量
比特币一个区块容?#30475;?#23567;为1M,每秒最多支持7?#24335;?#26131;,以太坊每秒也只有10几笔,EOS号称要实现百万级的TPS,目前也只有4000左右。这个和visa过万支付宝几十万的TPS相比还相差甚远。所以有人提出增加区块的容量,比如将比特币现在的1M扩容到2M、8M等,通过扩容来提升公链性能。但不足的地方在于分叉率提高,可能还会导致空块。

2.隔离见证
隔离见证是由比特?#39029;?#26399;团队开发的对于BiTCOin Core的拟议更新,将非必要签名信息移除区块,使得区块容量降低一半。但即使这样,性能只提升一倍,提升幅度有限。

3.更改共识机制
在POW共识之后,提出了PoS、DPoS等多种共识算法。相比POW,PoS和DPoS机制没有大量能源的消?#27169;?#24615;能也得到了显著提升,但这是牺牲了去?#34892;?#21270;为代价的,现阶段还未出现完美解决三元悖论的共识算法。

4.DAG技术
称为:有向无环图,将原始的链式结构改为网状结构,大幅提升并发性能。像IOTA就是采用DAG技术,并非区块链,也引起了一波热炒,不过现在?#19981;?#27809;有实地的技术落地应用出来。安全性和一致性上还未得到充分的验证。

5.?#21046;?#25216;术
?#21046;?#25216;术将全网的工作量分配到各个?#21046;?#20013;并行处理,改变网络验证的方式来增加吞吐量。不过?#21046;?#25216;术的开发?#35759;?#22823;,状态?#21046;?#38656;要克服诸多挑战。

链下扩容

1.状态通道
状态通道是通过在不同用户之间或用户和服务之间建立一个双向通道,为不同实体之间提供状态维护服务。它允许把区块链上的许多操作在链外进行管理,等完成链外操作后多方签名确认后,才将最终结果上链。

我们用银行和余额宝的例子来讲解一下状态通道,首先我们把银行比作区块链,我们把部分的钱?#21491;?#34892;存到余额宝中,用余额宝进行小额交易,当我们想提现时,直接从余额宝提?#31181;?#38134;行卡即可。状态通道对应余额宝,当有一方要关闭状态通道时,相当于提现操作,余额宝中保存了当前账户的状态,关闭状态通道时将状态更新至链上,相当于更新银行账户状态。

2.侧链
侧链技术是一种分开独立的区块链,其会使用一个双向锚定来依附于主链。你可以将资产移动到侧链上,?#37096;?#20197;转移回主链。这种双向锚定可以在主链和侧链之间按照预先设定的速?#24335;?#34892;资产的内部交换。初始的区块链通常代表着主链,而且所?#34892;?#22686;的区块链都被定义为侧链。

3.跨链
跨链就是信息从一条链到另外一条链,区块链之间互通性极大程度的限制了区块链的应用空间。不论对于公有链还是私有链来看,跨链技术就是实现价值互联网的关键,它?#21069;?#21306;块链从分散的孤岛中拯救出来的?#23478;?#26159;区块链向外拓展和连接的桥梁。

4.链?#24405;?#31639;
就是将复杂的任务放到链下处理,再将结果返回链上。以太坊声称要做计算机,EOS 要做全球操作?#20302;常?#20294;无论是做计算机还是做操作?#20302;?#37117;得正视计算这个问题,链上计算的开销是?#27973;?#22823;的,链上每一个 EVM 的 Code 计算需要全球计算机都算一遍,才能得出结果,所以有人做了这么一个计算的扩展,在链外做计算。


来源:JURA侏罗记

转自:区块网

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